What is Git?

Git is a distributed version control system.

Common Git commands

git init – creates a Git repository in the current directory

git add . – adds all files in the current directory to the Git repository

git commit – commits current files to the Git repository

git commit --amend -m "Whoops. Used a wrong commit message last time." – Revise a commit message with a new one.

Common workflow

Let’s go through an example workflow to see how the commands listed above are used:

$ cd ~
$ mkdir kinect_code
$ cd kinect_code
$ git init
Initialized empty Git repository in /Users/ken/kinect_code/.git/

All I’ve done so far is 1) create a directory ~/kinect_code and 2) initialize a Git repository within ~/kinect_code.

$ echo "This is the README" > README
$ touch .gitignore
$ ls -al
drwxr-xr-x   4 ken  staff   136 Apr 20 15:30 .
drwxr-xr-x+ 62 ken  staff  2108 Apr 20 15:30 ..
drwxr-xr-x  13 ken  staff   442 Apr 20 15:30 .git
-rw-r--r--   1 ken  staff     0 Apr 20 15:30 .gitignore
-rw-r--r--   1 ken  staff    19 Apr 20 15:30 README

At this point, we have created a Git repository within the ~/kinect_code directory, and we’ve created two files, README and .gitignore. However, the git status command shows that the Git repository is not tracking the two files.

$ git status
# On branch master
# Initial commit
# Untracked files:
#   (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
#   .gitignore
nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)

To start tracking these files, use the git add commmand:

$ git add README
$ git commit -m "Initial commit; added README to the Git repository."

[master (root-commit) 8ef6c17] Initial commit; added README to the Git repository.
 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 README

The following situation involves undoing an accidental commit with git revert HEAD:

$ git rm *
$ git commit -m "Removed everything"
[master 9f31df6] Removed everything
0 files changed
delete mode 100644 README
$ git revert HEAD
<add comment to revert>
[master 2cca6ca] Revert "Removed everything"
0 files changed
create mode 100644 README

Git concepts

  • HEAD points to the tip of the current branch you’re on.

Avoid having to type username and password every single git-push

$ git config credential.helper cache
$ git push http://example.com/test.git
Username: <type your username>
Password: <type your password>

[work for 5 minutes]
git push http://example.com/test.git
[your credentials are used automatically]

# default timeout of credential cache is 900 seconds, or 15 minutes
# exit credential cache early
$ git credential-cache exit

Useful git-log examples

$ git log --pretty=oneline --max-count=2
$ git log --pretty=oneline --author="Carson Tang"
$ git log --pretty=oneline --since="5 minutes ago"

git stash commands ashing-your-changes.html)